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Variable importance plots: an introduction to vip

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Managing security vulnerabilities. Managing files in a repository.In the previous article in this series, inspired by actual reader questions, I looked into troubleshooting asynchronous serial connections.

The core idea of SPI is that each device has a shift-register that it can use to send or receive a byte of data. These two shift registers are connected together in a ring, the output of one going to the input of the other and vice-versa. One device, the mastercontrols the common clock signal that makes sure that each register shifts one bit in just exactly as the other is shifting one bit out and vice-versa. While asynchronous serial communications can run in the hundred-of-thousands of bits per second, SPI is usually good for ten megabits per second or more.

You often see asynchronous serial between man and machine, because people are fairly slow. Since all of the rings are shared, each slave has an additional dedicated line that tells it when to attach and detach from the bus. When the individual SS line is pulled low, the slave engages. Note that the master is responsible for keeping one and only one SS line active low at any given time. First, the master drops the CS line. Then it starts clocking in the command — in this case binarythe read command.

The next two bytes from the master are the read address. All the while, the slave has been holding its MISO line low, returning zeros. After receiving the read address, the slave starts sending back its data. Unfortunately, if you like thinking about when in the clock cycle the chip reads the data, the industry decided to latch on to another aspect of the transmission which maps to the same thing: the phase.

My head hurts even writing it out. First, I look at when the data is sampled. A read-on-rising-edge is 0,0 or 1,1.

If it idles low, you have 0,0. Most everyone uses 0,0 or 1,1: data is read on the upward-going edge, and reset on the downswing.

Most chips have a status register or a chip ID. Set the phase and polarity on your microcontroller, and send the command to read the known data out of the slave device, and verify the answer.

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Not much, except when the master talks too fast for the slave to follow. The good news? This is easy to debug. If you know exceptions, post up in the comments! So test it.This data format provides an easy way to produce data that lets programmers take a voter's address, compare it to street segmentsand determine that voter's precinct or precinct split.

Knowing a voter's precinct allows information disseminators such as Google and Microsoft provide voters with their official polling locations and early voting sitesballots including both candidates and referendalocal election administrationsand election officials.

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The actual election information specifies collections of elements, some containing links between each other. See the sample xml file and xsd file for more details. Each top-level tag is a container for other fields, described in their own section.

The only required top-level tags are the source object and the election object, each of which must be present exactly once. All other top-level tags can be repeated an unlimited number of times, or not included at all; order of top-level tags does not matter. Each top-level tag is required to have a single attribute, "id", which is required to be: 1 an integer, and 2 unique in a data file.

The id attribute for the state object is often the state's FIPS numberbut this is not required. The id attributes are not required to remain constant for the same piece of semantic data across multiple productions of the feed. For example, candidate Michael Smith, running for dogcatcher in Iowa, is not required to have the same candidate id attribute each time the state of Iowa publishes data.

In general, subtag data can appear a maximum of one time within each top-level tag object and in any order. Exceptions are noted below. If the file is zipped, the file extensions of. For instance, vipFeed If your office is producing flat files, they must be comma-delimited. Examples of the flat files are below each XML example and include the necessary files to link those elements together as needed.

To read more about the flat files, view complete file header templates, and review example files, you can do so in this GitHub repository. If your office is producing flat files, the source element is in a comma-delimited.

Example file for a source element:. If your office is producing flat files, the election element is in a comma-delimited. Example file for an election element:. If your office is producing flat files, the state element is in a comma-delimited. Example file for a state element:. If your office is producing flat files, the locality elements are in a comma-delimited.

Example file for localities:. Three example XML's for a precinct element.

spi vip github

The first is a standard, in-person precinct. The second is a mail-in precinct with a precinct specific drop location.

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The third is a mail-in precinct with multiple drop locations spread around the county. If your office is producing flat files, the precinct elements are in a comma-delimited.

Example file for precincts:. If your office is producing flat files, the precinct split elements are in a comma-delimited. If your office is producing flat files, the election administration elements are in a comma-delimited.

Example file for election administration offices:. If your office is producing flat files, the election official elements are in a comma-delimited.The Hello World project is a time-honored tradition in computer programming. It is a simple exercise that gets you started when learning something new. GitHub is a code hosting platform for version control and collaboration. It lets you and others work together on projects from anywhere.

This tutorial teaches you GitHub essentials like repositoriesbranchescommitsand Pull Requests. To complete this tutorial, you need a GitHub. Tip: Open this guide in a separate browser window or tab so you can see it while you complete the steps in the tutorial. A repository is usually used to organize a single project. Repositories can contain folders and files, images, videos, spreadsheets, and data sets — anything your project needs.

GitHub makes it easy to add one at the same time you create your new repository. It also offers other common options such as a license file. Your hello-world repository can be a place where you store ideas, resources, or even share and discuss things with others. By default your repository has one branch named master which is considered to be the definitive branch.

We use branches to experiment and make edits before committing them to master. If someone else made changes to the master branch while you were working on your branch, you could pull in those updates. Here at GitHub, our developers, writers, and designers use branches for keeping bug fixes and feature work separate from our master production branch.

When a change is ready, they merge their branch into master. Now you have two branches, master and readme-edits. They look exactly the same, but not for long! On GitHub, saved changes are called commits. Each commit has an associated commit messagewhich is a description explaining why a particular change was made.

Nice edits! Now that you have changes in a branch off of masteryou can open a pull request. Pull Requests are the heart of collaboration on GitHub. Pull requests show diffsor differences, of the content from both branches. The changes, additions, and subtractions are shown in green and red. As soon as you make a commit, you can open a pull request and start a discussion, even before the code is finished.

You can even open pull requests in your own repository and merge them yourself.

AXI Verification IP (VIP)

Tip : You can use emoji and drag and drop images and gifs onto comments and Pull Requests. No coding necessary To complete this tutorial, you need a GitHub.

spi vip github

Step 1. Create a Repository A repository is usually used to organize a single project. To create a new repository In the upper right corner, next to your avatar or identicon, click and then select New repository. Name your repository hello-world. Write a short description. Click Create repository.

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Step 2. Create a Branch Branching is the way to work on different versions of a repository at one time. Something like: story. To create a new branch Go to your new repository hello-world.Track My Order. Frequently Asked Questions. International Shipping Info. Send Email. Mon-Fri, 9am to 12pm and 1pm to 5pm U. Mountain Time:. Chat With Us.

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Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is an interface bus commonly used to send data between microcontrollers and small peripherals such as shift registers, sensors, and SD cards. It uses separate clock and data lines, along with a select line to choose the device you wish to talk to.

A common serial port, the kind with TX and RX lines, is called "asynchronous" not synchronous because there is no control over when data is sent or any guarantee that both sides are running at precisely the same rate.

To work around this problem, asynchronous serial connections add extra start and stop bits to each byte help the receiver sync up to data as it arrives. Both sides must also agree on the transmission speed such as bits per second in advance. Slight differences in the transmission rate aren't a problem because the receiver re-syncs at the start of each byte. By the way, if you noticed that "" does not equal 0x53 in the above diagram, kudos to your attention to detail.

Serial protocols will often send the least significant bits first, so the smallest bit is on the far left. Asynchronous serial works just fine, but has a lot of overhead in both the extra start and stop bits sent with every byte, and the complex hardware required to send and receive data.

And as you've probably noticed in your own projects, if both sides aren't set to the same speed, the received data will be garbage.

spi vip github

This is because the receiver is sampling the bits at very specific times the arrows in the above diagram.

If the receiver is looking at the wrong times, it will see the wrong bits. SPI works in a slightly different manner. It's a "synchronous" data bus, which means that it uses separate lines for data and a "clock" that keeps both sides in perfect sync.

The clock is an oscillating signal that tells the receiver exactly when to sample the bits on the data line. This could be the rising low to high or falling high to low edge of the clock signal; the datasheet will specify which one to use. When the receiver detects that edge, it will immediately look at the data line to read the next bit see the arrows in the below diagram.For example, it is often of interest to know which, if any, of the predictors in a fitted model are relatively influential on the predicted outcome.

spi vip github

Some modern algorithms—like random forests and gradient boosted decision trees—have a natural way of quantifying the importance or relative influence of each feature. For illustration, we use one of the regression problems described in Friedman and Breiman These data are available in the mlbench package. Outputs are created according to the formula described in? The code chunk below simulates observations from the model default standard deviation.

Some machine learning algorithms have their own way of quantifying variable Importance. We describe some of these in the subsection that follow.

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The issue with model-specific VI scores is that they are not necessarily comparable across different types of models. Decision trees probably offer the most natural model-specific approach to quantifying the importance of each feature. Stone for details. In ensembles, the improvement score for each predictor is averaged across all the trees in the ensemble. Fortunately, due to the stabilizing effect of averaging, the improvement-based VI metric is often more reliable in large ensembles see Hastie, Tibshirani, and Friedmanpg.

RFs offer an additional method for computing VI scores. The idea is to use the leftover out-of-bag OOB data to construct validation-set errors for each tree. Then, each predictor is randomly shuffled in the OOB data and the error is computed again.

The difference in the two errors is recorded for the OOB data then averaged across all trees in the forest. Note: there are a number of different packages available for fitting these types of models, we just picked popular and efficient implementations for illustration. Each of the above packages include the ability to compute VI scores for all the features in the model; however, the implementation is rather package specific, as shown in the code chunk below.

As we would expect, all three methods rank the variables x. While this is good news, it is unfortunate that we have to remember the different functions and ways of extracting and plotting VI scores from various model fitting functions. This is where vip can help…one function to rule them all! Once vip is loaded, we can use vi to extract a tibble of VI scores.

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Notice how the vi function always returns a tibble with two columns: Variable and Importance 1. Also, by default, vi always orders the VI scores from highest to lowest; this, among other options, can be controlled by the user see? Plotting VI scores with vip is just as straightforward. Notice how the vip function always returns a "ggplot" object by default, this will be a bar plot.

For large models with many features, a dot plot is more effective in fact, a number of useful plotting options can be fiddles with. The same idea also extends to generalized linear models GLMs.

In the code chunk below, we fit an LM to the simulated trn data set allowing for all main and two-way interaction effects, then use the step function to perform backward elimination. We can solve this problem using one of the model-agnostic approaches discussed later.This library allows you to communicate with SPI devices, with the Arduino as the master device. Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is a synchronous serial data protocol used by microcontrollers for communicating with one or more peripheral devices quickly over short distances.

It can also be used for communication between two microcontrollers. With an SPI connection there is always one master device usually a microcontroller which controls the peripheral devices. Typically there are three lines common to all the devices:.

When a device's Slave Select pin is low, it communicates with the master. When it's high, it ignores the master. The SPI standard is loose and each device implements it a little differently. This means you have to pay special attention to the device's datasheet when writing your code. Generally speaking, there are four modes of transmission. These modes control whether data is shifted in and out on the rising or falling edge of the data clock signal called the clock phaseand whether the clock is idle when high or low called the clock polarity.

The four modes combine polarity and phase according to this table:. The SPI port will be configured with your all of your settings. For example:. Unless you, or some library, calls beginTransaction a second time, the setting are maintained. You should attempt to minimize the time between before you call SPI.

The following table display on which pins the SPI lines are broken out on the different Arduino boards:. All AVR based boards have an SS pin that is useful when they act as a slave controlled by an external master.

Since this library supports only master mode, this pin should be set always as OUTPUT otherwise the SPI interface could be put automatically into slave mode by hardware, rendering the library inoperative. It is, however, possible to use any pin as the Slave Select SS for the devices. For example, the Arduino Ethernet shield uses pin 4 to control the SPI connection to the on-board SD card, and pin 10 to control the connection to the Ethernet controller.

Corrections, suggestions, and new documentation should be posted to the Forum. Code samples in the reference are released into the public domain. This is controlled by the first parameter in SPISettings.

If you are using a chip rated at 15 MHzuse Arduino will automatically use the best speed that is equal to or less than the number you use with SPISettings. Is the data clock idle when high or low? Are samples on the rising or falling edge of clock pulses? These modes are controlled by the third parameter in SPISettings.

For example: SPI. The four modes combine polarity and phase according to this table: Mode.


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